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  • C-CORE 1.14 Ice Accretion


 Ice Accretion

Challenge ID



Ice Accretion

Challenge originator:


General Description


What data/products do you use?

The identification of historical ice accretion events is essentially limited to reports from surface based observations, as reported from ships and buoys. The historical records of events involving weather conditions that potentially resulted in ice accretion are available via ICOADS.

Real-time and near real-time observations of weather conditions that could potentially result in ice accretion are available from many sources including NOAA (NWSTG), NOAA (MADIS), NOAA (NDBC), UCAR, and numerous other data distribution centers.

When do you use this kind of dataset?

Ice accretion might affect and slow down operations on deck, as well as alter the load of structures (if heavy icing occurs). Data are used to (a) qualify and quantify the means and extremes of weather conditions that potentially resulted in ice accretion, and (b) manage risks related to weather conditions that could potentially result in ice accretion, safeguarding lives, protecting assets, and conducting operations.

What are your actual limitations and do you have a work around? 

Although surface-based observations report weather events that could result in ice accretion, the observations do not always quantify ice accretion events.

The temporal and spatial resolutions of surface-based observations significantly limit the identification of ice accretion events. Unless ships or buoys measure and report ice accretion, the parameter is not readily available for analysis over vast areas of the ocean.

Needs and expectations on EO data

Specific need: More surface-based observations that quantify and verify ice accretion.

Challenge classification


Pre license










Geographic context/ restrictions

Eastern Mediterranean, Falkland Islands and West of Ireland.

Eastern Mediterranean, West of Ireland - applies to Northern Hemisphere's winter
Falkland Islands - applies to Southern Hemisphere's winter

Topographic classification / Offshore classification


Activity impacted/concerned


Technology Urgency

Short term (2-5 years)

Information requirements


Update frequency

Real-time or near real-time observations are available sub-hourly and less frequently. Historical observations are generally updated once per month, for the previous month.

Temporal resolution

Sufficient. Sub-hourly and less frequently.

Spatial resolution

Observations are available based on the location of the ship observation, therefore the spatial resolution varies greatly.

Data quality

The selected sources in this document are selected because they are known to have sufficient quality (after some work arounds and adaptations). In general separate indepth verification studies has to be made for each source planned to be used for analysis, and the analysis has to be repeated for each geographical area (since sources might be of sufficient quality in one area but not another).

Data Coverage and extent


Example format

Surface-bases observation: text, CSV and/or netCDF


Daily or twice daily.

Existing standards




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