This page shows the taxonomy structure of the EO services organised thematically. There are 6 classes of service as shown on the tabs. Each class contains a number of thematic sectors into which the EO services are grouped.

  • Thematic Sector: this is the classification of the grouped EO services.
  • Client view: These are each EO service described as a client may wish.
  • Key-words: these define the products which can make up an EO service.

Thematic Sector

EO Services

Key words


Assess Environmental impact of farming



Assess crop damage due to storms

bad weather, impact on crops


Monitor crops

crop health (disease and stress), crop acreage and yield harvest (inventories / statistics), crop types (extent, growth, health, stress), crop yields


Detect illegal or undesired crops

illegal crops


Monitor water use on crops and horticulture

soil water index, surface soil moisture, run-off


Assess Deforestation / Forest Degradation

deforestation, degradation maps


Assess forest damage due to storms or insects

storm, insect damage impact maps


Monitor forest resources

forest biomass (diversity, health, extent), forest type, forest classification (cover density), tree cover density (canopy coverage)


Detect illegal forest activities

illicit logging


Assess environmental impact of forestry

forest location, extent and tree cover density

 Monitor forest carbon contentemissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)

Inland Water

 Assess and monitor water bodies   

water quality, pollution, turbidity, suspended sediment concentrations (quantitative, qualitative), waterbody (temperature, extent, volume, quantity), algal blooms


Assess ground water and run-off

water run-off (water quantity), hydrological network and catchment areas (water catchment)


Monitor ice on rivers and lakes

inland ice

Snow & Ice

Detect changes in glaciers



Monitor snow cover

snow cover

Land Ecosystems

Monitor land ecosystems and biodiversity

critical habitat maps, wildlife corridors, linear features (hedges and boundaries, vegetation index (FAPAR; NDVI, LAI), vegetation stress, stem volume, soil moisture


Assess environmental impact of human activities

environmental assessment


Monitor land pollution


 Monitor land cover and detect change 

arid areas, wet areas, erosion potential, CORINE (characterization & classification), soil sealing

Land use

Detect illegal mining activities

illicit mining


Assess land value, ownership, type, use

land accounting (use, parcels), cadastral, land use & quality


Measure land use statistics

land administration, land use studies


Monitor humanitarian movement and camps

monitoring of settlements


Assess pressures on populations and migration

population pressures / migration


 Monitor vegetation encroachment

mapping of terrain, infrastructure and operations, pipeline corridor status, encroachment 


Baseline mapping 

Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), Digital Surface Model (DSM), Digital Terrain Model (DTM), terrain roughness measure, slope stability (curvature, aspect), surface deformation maps and profiles


 Measure detect land surface change

surface movement: sand dunes, pipeline routes (corridor status), soil erosion


Detect and monitor ground movement 

reservoir compartmentalization & optimization, permafrost zone stability, ground displacement: fault identification, reactivation & discontinuities, uplift, subsidence, heave.


Map geological features

near surface features, lithology features, linear disturbance features:  faults & discontinuities


Map seismic survey operations

seismic (survey, coupling, logistics)


Monitor mineral extraction

mineral workings / ground surface, illegal activities

 Identify hydrocarbon seeps in soil 

hydrocarbon seepage (oil seeps) detection (near surface geology: faults, fractures, unconformities or carrier beds)

Thematic Sector

EO Service

Key words

Urban Areas

Monitor urban areas

urban areas, urban atlas, urban settlement maps, urban development, smart cities, individual houses inventory


Monitor urban surroundings

rural areas and surroundings, waste management, water supply, positioning energy, leisure


 Monitor construction and buildings

building inventory & footprint, strategic infrastructure development, structural interpretation


Map and monitor solar energy (solar farms)

solar energy and radiation (design and operation)


Map and monitor wind energy (wind farms)

wind energy (design and operation), wind roses


Map line of sight visibility (land surface) 

land surface, spatial planning, landscape visibility analysis, terrain mapping (DTMs), map transmission and land routes


Map and monitor hydroelectric energy

hydroelectric plants (design and operation)


Map and monitor transport networks  

infrastructure, soft ground, identification of road or track for logistics planning, transport network

 Assess damage from industrial accidents disaster risk reduction (emergency response, recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction)
 Asset infrastructure monitoring 

land cover, infrastructure, pipelines

Thematic Sector

EO Service 

Key words

Marine ecosystem

Monitor ocean quality and productivity

algal bloom (phytoplankton), ocean colour compositte (chl-a, swath, qualitative, quantitative), sea surface temperature (SST)


Monitor pollution at sea

turbidity & pollutants


Detect and monitor oil slicks

oil spill threats (early warning), natural oil seepage,


Monitor oil rigs and flares

gas flares and oil rigs

 Monitor marine habitats 

algal blooms, marine mammals, sea surface temperature, sediments, plumes, dredging operation


Map water depth or charting

charting / shallow water bathymetry


Monitor coastal ecosystem

waterbody nutrients / productivity (chlorophyll-a concentration), coastal, littoral and subtidal habitat (mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass canopy density)


Monitor ocean level and surface

sea rise

 Assess and monitor coastal water quality 

sediment (qualitative, quantitative), turbidity (quality, quantitative), visibility, chlorophyll-a concentration 


coastal land cover, shoreline change and coastal morphology (coastal terrain models)


 Forecast and monitor ocean currents and drift

ocean dynamics and circulation: tides and ocean currents (surface current models for tides), sea surface salinity (internal waves, eddies and frontal areas), upwelling


Forecast and monitor ocean winds and waves

derived winds (speed, direction, stress) and waves (current veins, swell-maps: sea surface heigh), wave exposure (fetch, averaged directional wind speed and bathymetry), sea surface roughness (rain cells)


Forecast and map large waves

extreme waves / tsunami


Detect and monitor hurricanes and typhoons

atmospheric front, local weather phenomena, cloud structure, winds and waves, sea-surface temperature and sea-surface height


Map fish shoals

fish-shoal location


Detect and monitor illegal fishing

illegal fishing


Detect ships in critical areas

shipping and navigation


Monitor ship movements


Sea-ice and icebergs

Detect and monitor ice-risk at sea

sea-ice and icebergs, ship routing, ice cover, oil rigs

Thematic Sector

EO Service

Key words


 Monitor air quality & emissions   

air quality forecasting, emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. ie: CH4, tropospheric NO2 and SO2, particulate matters or aerosols


 Monitor atmosphere composition

aerosol and carbon monoxide, greenhouse gases: CO2, Methane, NOx, SOx


Forecasting sunlight exposure

UV & solar radiation measures


Assess changes in the carbon balance

carbon monitoring


Assess climate change risk

climate change, record of stratospheric ozone


 Assess climate forcing

infrared radiation, scattering of solar radiation


 Forecast weather  

weather monitoring and prediction (hurricane tracks, cyclone, storm tracks), visibility

Thematic Sector

EO Services

Key words


Map and assess flooding

surface soil moisture, floodplain, flood extend mapping, flood risk assessment, flood frequency, rainfall, monitoring flash floods, flood frequency and modelling


Detect and monitor wildfires

forest fire risk (extent, burnt scars), damage


Assess damage from earthquakes

earthquake (risk, information, damage), seismic, inter-seismic deformations, slip rates & active faults, stress transfer on faults


Forecast and assess landslides

landslides (risk, monitoring, damage), slope instability and subsidence detection, fault and discontinuity maps (vector or raster)


Assess and Monitor Volcanic Activity

volcanic eruptions (pre-eruptive, sin-eruptive, atmospheric ash, dispersion)

Thematic Sector

EO Service

Key words


Monitor  sensitive risk areas

geospatial intelligence, sensitive risk areas (mines, unexploded objects (UXO), de-mining), high risk areas, precision mapping


Map disaster areas

humanitarian aid maps


Monitor land border incursions

border area monitoring.


Monitor movement of people

migration and cleansing


Monitor economic activity

legal and illegal activities


Monitor transport routes

transportation of legal and illegal goods, trafficking


Forecasting epidemics and diseases

daily disease risk maps, NDVI, land cover, soil type

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