In This Space
Imperviousness degree, Istanbul, Turkey 2012 (Source: GeoVille/EEA)
This product maps up-to-date and historical information on the extent, development and density of sealed areas. Soil sealing is the covering of the soil surface with materials like concrete and stone, as a result of new buildings, roads, parking places etc. Depending on its degree, soil sealing reduces or (most likely) completely prevents natural soil functions and ecosystem services on the area concerned and reduces permeability of the soil. Maps of soil sealing levels can assist in understanding the impact on the environment, drainage and water infiltration of both urban expansion and the development of related infrastructure.
Various types of thematic analysis can be performed when combining these products with other data, such as demographic and economic data, spatial indicators on the exposure to natural hazards, climate change related risks and policy-relevant indicators on essential spatial planning parameters (e.g. land consumption per capita, pressure on protected areas)
Soil sealing can be produced based on high resolution data.
EEA have produced a high resolution soil sealing layer for the whole of Europe for the years 2006, 2009 and 2012 (will be released in December 2014) based on the same satellite images as used for CORINE land cover data.
This product delivers PDF maps or vector/raster digital files that delineate and identify:
Known restrictions / limitations
In the tropics, frequent cloud cover can be an issue for data collection and image creation. This may be mitigated to some extent by utilising radar imagery.
Spectral distinction between bare areas and built-up can be challenging. High thematic accuracies may involve manual editing which is ultimately more time consuming.
Lifecycle stage and demand
Pre-Licensing & Exploration:
Geographic coverage and demand
Demand and coverage is global.
OTM:018 Identifying existing O&G infrastructure for facility site selection
HC:2504 Identification of slope instability
Input data sources
Optical: HR1, HR2, MR1
Radar: HR1, HR2, MR1
Spatial resolution and coverage
Spatial Resolution: 4 – 50 m resulting in scales of 1:25.000
Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU)
The MMU is dependent on the input data resolution, the mapped objects and the accuracy to be achieved. Monitoring soil sealing, typically hectares to km² at a time.
For optical satellite data with 4 m spatial resolution, a MMU of 256 m² can be achieved for example.
Accuracy / constraints
The spatial and thematic accuracies of soil sealing products depend mostly on the urban mapping products they are based on.
Thematic accuracy: 80-90%
Spatial accuracy: the goal would be one pixel, but depends on reference data
Accuracy assessment approach & quality control measures
Stratified random points sampling approach utilizing VHR reference or other geospatial in-situ data. Statistical confusion matrix with user’s and producer’s accuracy as well as kappa statistics for soil sealing.
Frequency / timeliness
Observation frequency: The temporal resolution (update frequency) is usually once every 3–5 years, but is limited only by the availability of satellite data (available globally every few days/weeks, depending on geographic latitude, cloud cover and data acquisition schedule) and the ancillary, non-EO (demographic, economic) datasets.
Timeliness of deliverable: Dependent on size of the mapped area, resolution, MMU.
Freely available or commercially acquired depending on the sensor selected.
Delivery / output format
For detailed soil sealing information the use of vector data would be superior to raster data, as multiple raster files would be necessary to convey the same information. Vector data is capable of keeping more complex information than a raster data.
|Peer Reviewer:||Hatfield Consultants|
Maria Lemper, Jan Militzer
# of Pages:
Internal – Project consortium and science partners
External – ESA
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