CO2

CO2 distribution in ppm, 2009 (Source: JAXA/NIES/MOE)

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION

Category

Component products

Air Quality

 

  • N/A

 

Uses

  • Environmental monitoring – Continuous monitoring of changes throughout the lifecycle

Geo-information requirements

  • Air quality and emissions

 

Description

This product provides information on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) – one of the most important greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. Space-based remote sensing of the CO2 column-average dry air mole fractions (XCO2) has the potential to provide observed global constraints on CO2 fluxes across the surface-atmosphere boundary and to provide insight into the related biogeochemical cycles. XCO2 products retrieved from these satellites have been validated with reference to high-resolution ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers (g-b FTS) data and model data.

The Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite, GOSAT, is the first satellite designed specifically for this application. GOSAT has been collecting CO2 and methane (CH4) observations over the sunlit hemisphere since April 2009. These data are beginning to yield new insights into the carbon cycle. Furthermore, in July 2014 NASA launched the second satellite dedicated to the measurement of CO2 - the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2). The OCO-2 satellite is being operated by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its stated mission objective is to “Collect the first space-based global measurements of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize its sources and sinks on regional scales and quantify their variability over the seasonal cycle”. The spatial resolution of these instruments is relatively low (GOSAT: ~ 1 x 1 km2; OCO-2: ~ 1.5 x 2.5 km2). The major focus of both of these missions is the determination of the global CO2 burden and its regional variations.

In contrast, the first mission dedicated to the high-resolution measurement of CO2 and CH4 emissions from space is the GHGSat, which will be launched in late 2015.  GHGSat spatial resolution is 50 x 50 m2, within a ground footprint of 10 x 15 km2.  This allows high precision mapping of emissions from identified target sources as opposed to obtaining averages over large areas. CarbonSat is a candidate for ESA’s eighth Earth Explorer mission.

The above missions all rely on measurement by optical spectroscopy. The MERLIN mission, scheduled for launch in 2019 will use LIDAR to obtain highly precise measurements of CH4 with 50 km resolution.

Known restrictions / limitations

Spatial resolution of carbon dioxide retrievals from satellite-based EO are relatively coarse – native resolution of sensors on existing missions is approximately 4 km2 (OCO-2) to 75 km2 (GOSAT). Regional chemical transport models, used to assimilate the measurements of these missions have typical spatial resolutions ranging from 12 x 12 km2 to 3 x 3 km2.

Future systems should provide improved retrievals. This novel LIDAR satellite is dedicated to CO2 monitoring and will provide data with 50 km resolution.

Lifecycle stage and demand

Pre-licensing

Exploration

Development

Production

Decommissioning

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*

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Pre-licensing & Exploration:

  • To accurately define the baseline CO2 scenario

Development & Production:

  • Information to minimise the amount of emissions, and gas flared or vented to the environment
  • Information to monitor impacts on the environment and highlight good and bad performers

Geographic coverage and demand

Global coverage and demand.

Challenges Addressed

OTM:021 Air quality (emissions) monitoring

HC:4106 Air quality monitoring on an airshed and site specific basis

PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

Input data sources

Operational:

  • GOSAT TANSO Sensor
  • EOS AQUA AIRS/AMSU/HSB Sensors
  • OCO-2

Achieve:

  • ENVISAT SCIAMACHY Sensor (decommissioned - only archive data)

Planned:

  • MERLIN IPDA LIDAR
  • GOSAT-2 TANSO-FTS/2
  • CarbonSat
  • Sentinel-5P TROPOMI
  • FY-3D, FY-3F (National Remote Sensing Centre of China)
  • Meteor-MP-N1 and N2 (Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring)
  • GHGSat

Spatial resolution and coverage

Spatial resolution:

  • GOSAT TANSO: 0.5 km (spectral bands 1,2,3), 1.5 km (spectral band 4)
  • ENVISAT SCIAMACHY: 30 x 60 km pixel resolution
  • EOS AQUA AIRS/AMSU/HSB: 90 x 90 km
  • OCO-2: 1.5 x 12.5 km
  • GHGSat: 50 x 50 m2

Minimum Mapping Unit (MMU)

N/A

Accuracy / constraints

Thematic accuracy: Land cover/land use, assets/infrastructure and water extent 80-90%.

Spatial accuracy: Dependent on input component products, but typically within 1 – 2 pixels.

Accuracy assessment approach & quality control measures

Statistical confusion matrix with user’s and producer’s accuracy for land cover/land use and water extent. In-situ measurements.

Frequency / timeliness

Observation frequency: N/A

Timeliness of delivery: N/A

Availability

Freely available or commercially acquired depending on the sensor selected.

Delivery / output format

Data type:

  • Vector formats

Format by sensor:

  • ENVISAT SCIAMACHY:  mixed-binary format
  • GOSAT TANSO: HDF5
  • AIRS/AMSU/HSB: HDF-EOS
  • OCO-2: HDF5


 Download product sheet.

 

Lead Author:GeoVille
Peer Reviewer:Hatfield Consultants

Author(s):

Maria Lemper, Jan Militzer

Document Title:

CO2

# of Pages:

4

Circulation:

Internal – Project consortium and science partners

 

External – ESA

 

 

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